‘Ava’: a Beaker-associated woman from a cist at Achavanich, Highland, and the story of her (re-)discovery and subsequent study

Maya Hoole (Author)

Alison Sheridan (Author)

Angela Boyle (Author)

Thomas Booth (Author)

Selina Brace (Author)

Yoan Diekmann (Author)

Iñigo Olalde (Author)

Mark G Thomas (Author)

Ian Barnes (Author)

Jane Evans (Author)

Carolyn Chenery (Author)

Hilary Sloane (Author)

Hew Morrison (Author)

Sheena Fraser (Author)

Scott Timpany (Author)

Derek Hamilton (Author)

Cist, Beaker, Human remains, Flint implement, Animal bone
Achavanich; Caithness; Highland; Scotland; UK
Bronze Age


This contribution describes the discovery and subsequent investigation of a cist in a rock-cut pit at Achavanich, Highland. Discovered and excavated in 1987, the cist was found to contain the tightly contracted skeletal remains of a young woman, accompanied by a Beaker, three flint artefacts and a cattle scapula. Initial post excavation work established a date for the skeleton together with details of her age and sex, and preliminary pollen analysis of sediments attaching to the Beaker was undertaken. The findings were never fully published and, upon the death of the excavator, Robert Gourlay, the documentary archive was left in the Highland Council Archaeology Unit. Fresh research in 2014–17, initiated and co-ordinated by the first-named author and funded by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland with assistance from National Museums Scotland, the Natural History Museum and Harvard Medical School, has produced a significant amount of new information on the individual and on some of the items with which she was buried. This new information includes two further radiocarbon dates, a more detailed osteological report, isotopic information pertaining to the place where she had been raised and to her diet, histological information on the decomposition of her body, and genetic information that sheds light on her ancestry, her hair, eye and skin colour and her intolerance of lactose. (This is the first time that an ancient DNA report has been published in the Proceedings.) Moreover, a facial reconstruction adds virtual flesh to her bones. The significance of this discovery within the Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age of this part of Scotland is discussed, along with the many and innovative ways in which information on this individual, dubbed ‘Ava’, has been disseminated around the world.


Download data is not yet available.


Achavanich Beaker Burial Project https://achavanichbeakerburial.wordpress.com/. Accessed 7 May 2018.
Allen, D E & Hatfield, G 2004 Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition: An Ethnobotany of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Timber Press.
Allentoft, M E, Sikora, M, Sjögren, K G, Rasmussen, S, Rasmussen, M, Stenderup, J, Damgaard, P B, Schroeder, H, Ahlström, T, Vinner, L & Malaspinas, A S 2015 ‘Population genomics of bronze age Eurasia’, Nature 522 (7555): 167–72. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature 14507.
Ambers, J, Bowman, S, Gibson, A M & Kinnes, I A 1992 ‘Radiocarbon results for the British Beakers’, Radiocarbon 34(3): 916–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200064249.
Ambers J, Matthews, K & Bowman, S 1991 ‘British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XXII’, Radiocarbon 33(1): 51–68. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200013205.
Andersen, S Th 1979 ‘Identification of wild grass and cereal pollen’, Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelser Årbog: 69–82.
Anderson, J 1866 ‘Report on the ancient remains of Caithness and results of explorations conducted for the Anthropological Society of London by Messrs. Joseph Anderson and Robert Innes Shearer in 1865’, Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London 2(1865–6): 226–56.
Anderson, J 1868 ‘On the horned cairns of Caithness, their structural arrangement, contents of chambers, & co.’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 7: 480–512.
Ashmore, P J 1999 ‘Radiocarbon dating: avoiding errors by avoiding mixed samples’, Antiquity 73(279): 124–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000 3598X00087901.
Aufderheide, A C & Rodríguez-Martín, C 1998 The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baines, A, Brophy, K & Pannett, A 2003 ‘Yarrows Landscape Project/Battle Moss stone rows (Wick parish)’, Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 4: 94–5.
Barber, K E 1976 ‘History of vegetation’, in Chapman, S B (ed.) Methods in Plant Ecology, 5–83. Oxford: Blackwell.
Barrett, J C 1990 ‘The monumentality of death: the character of Early Bronze Age mortuary mounds in southern Britain’, World Archaeology 22(2): 179–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1990.9980139.
Bass, W M 1987 Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual, 3rd edn. Missouri: Missouri Archaeological Society.
Bell, L S, Skinner, M F & Jones, S J 1996 ‘The speed of post-mortem change to the human skeleton and its taphonomic significance’, Forensic Science International 82: 129–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-0738(96)0 1984-6.
Bennett, K A 1965 ‘The etiology and genetics of wormian bones’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 23: 255–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330230313.
Berry, A C & Berry, R J 1967 ‘Epigenetic variation in the human cranium’, Journal of Anatomy 101: 361–79.
Booth, T J 2016 ‘An investigation into the relationship between funerary treatment and bacterial bioerosion in European archaeological human bone’, Archaeometry 58(3): 484–99. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12190.
Booth, T J, Chamberlain, A T & Parker Pearson, M 2015 ‘Mummification in Bronze Age Britain’, Antiquity 89(347): 1155–73. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2015.111.
Booth, T J & Madgwick, R 2016 ‘New evidence for diverse secondary burial practices in Iron Age Britain: a histological case study’, Journal of Archaeological Science 67: 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.01.010.
Booth, T J, Redfern, R C & Gowland, R L 2016 ‘Immaculate conceptions: micro-CT analysis of diagenesis in Romano-British infant skeletons’, Journal of Archaeological Science 74: 124–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.007.
Brickley, M & McKinley, J I (eds) 2004 ‘Guide-lines to the standards for recording of human remains’, Institute of Field Archaeologists Paper No. 7. Southampton and Reading: BABAO and Institute of Field Archaeologists.
British History Podcast ‘The Achavanich Beaker Burial Project: Discovering Ava with Maya Hoole’. https://www.thebritishhistorypodcast.com/achavanich/. Accessed 7 May 2018.
British History Podcast ‘The Achavanich beaker Burial Project: The Beaker People with Dr. Alison Sheridan’. https://www.thebritishhistorypodcast.com/achavanich-beaker-burial-project-beaker-people-dr-alison-sheridan/. Accessed 7 May 2018.
Bronk Ramsey, C 1995 ‘Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: The OxCal program’, Radiocarbon 37(2): 425–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200030903.
Bronk Ramsey, C 1998 ‘Probability and dating’, Radiocarbon 40(1): 461–74. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200018348.
Bronk Ramsey, C 2001 ‘Development of the radiocarbon calibration program’, Radiocarbon 43(2A): 355–63. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200038212.
Bronk Ramsey, C 2009 ‘Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates’, Radiocarbon 51(1): 337–60. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200033865.
Brooks, M M & Rumsey, C 2006 ‘The Body in the Museum’, in Cassman, V, Odegaard, N & Powell, J (eds), Human remains: Guide for Museums and Academic Institutions, 261–89. Plymouth: Altamira Press.
Brotherton, P, Haak, W, Templeton, J, Brandt, G, Soubrier, J, Adler, C J, Richards, S M, Der Sarkissian, C, Ganslmeier, R, Friederich, S & Dresely, V 2013 ‘Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans’, Nature Communications 4: 1764.
Brothwell, D R 1973 ‘The human biology of the Neolithic population of Britain’, Fundamenta 3: 280–99.
Brothwell, D R, 1981 Digging up bones, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press/British Museum (Natural History).
Brück, J 1995 ‘A place for the dead: the role of human remains in Late Bronze Age Britain’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 61: 245–77. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00003091.
Brück, J 2004 ‘Material metaphors: the relational construct of identity in Early Bronze Age burials in Ireland and Britain’, Journal of Social Archaeology 4(3): 307–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469605304046417.
Bryce, T H & Low, A 1905 ‘Notes (1) on a human skeleton found in a cist with a beaker urn at Acharole, West Watten, Caithness; and (2) on the cranial form associated with that type of ceramic. With an Appendix on Six Skulls found with Beakers in the North-East Counties’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 39: 418–24.
Buikstra, J E & Ubelaker, D 1994 ‘Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains’, Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History 44. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series.
Busby, G B J, Hellenthal, G, Montinaro, F, Tofanelli, S, Bulayeva, K, Rudan, I, Zemunik, T, Hayward, C, Toncheva, D, Karachanak-Yankova, S, Nesheva, D, Anagnostou, P, Cali, F, Brisighelli, F, Romano, V, Lefranc, G, Buresi, C, Chibani, J B, Haj-Khelil, A, Denden, S, Ploski, R, Krajewski, P, Hervig, T, Moen, T, Herrera, R J, Wilson, J F, Myers, S & Capelli, C 2015 ‘The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape’, Current Biology 25(21): 2878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub. 2015.08.007.
Chenery, C A, Pashley, V, Lamb, A L, Sloane, H J & Evans, J A 2012 ‘The oxygen isotope relationship between the phosphate and structural carbonate fractions of human bioapatite’, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26(3): 309–19.
Clarke, C 1999 ‘Palynological investigations of a Bronze Age cist burial from Whitsome, Scottish Borders, Scotland’, Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 553–60. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1998.0333.
Clarke, D L 1970 Beaker Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Curtis, N, Popovic, L, Wilkin, N & Wright, M 2010 ‘The moon, the bonfire and the Beaker? Analysing white inlay from Beaker pottery in Aberdeenshire’, PAST 65: 1–3.
Curtis, N & Wilkin, N 2012 ‘The regionality of Beakers and Bodies in the Chalcolithic of north-east Scotland’, in Allen, M J, Gardiner, J & Sheridan, J A (eds) Is there a British Chalcolithic? People, Place and Polity in the Later Third Millennium, 237–56. Oxford: Oxbow (Prehistoric Society Research Paper 4).
Curtis, N & Wilkin, N in press ‘Beakers and Bodies in north-east Scotland: a regional and contextual study’, in Parker Pearson, M, Chamberlain, A, Jay, M, Richards, M, Evans, J & Sheridan, J A (eds), The Beaker People: Isotopes, mobility and diet in prehistoric Britain. Oxford: Oxbow (Prehistoric Society Research Paper 7).
Cushing, E J 1967 ‘Evidence for differential pollen preservation in Late Quaternary sediments in Minnesota’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 4: 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(67)90175-3.
Dabney, J, Knapp, M, Glocke, I, Gansauge, M T, Weihmann, A, Nickel, B, Valdiosera, C, García, N, Pääbo, S, Arsuaga, J L & Meyer, M 2013 ‘Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(39): 15758–63. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314445110.
Dal Sasso, G, Maritan, L, Usai, D, Angelini, I & Artioli, G 2014 ‘Bone diagenesis at the micro-scale: bone alteration patterns during multiple burial phases at Al Khiday (Khartoum, Sudan) between the Early Holocene and the II century AD’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 416: 30–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.06.034.
Davidson, J L & Henshall, A S 1991 The Chambered Cairns of Caithness. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Davies, A L & Tipping, R 2007 ‘The Pollen’, in Murray, H K & Shepherd, I M ‘Excavation of a beaker cist burial with meadowsweet at Home Farm, Udny Green, Aberdeenshire’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 137: 44–55.
Davis, M 2006 ‘Modern trends: ancient patterns’, in Saunders, D, Townsend, J & Woodcock, S (eds) The Object in Context: crossing conservation boundaries. IIC Contributions to the Munich Congress 28 August –1 September 2006, 1–6. London: James & James/International Institute of Conservation.
DeNiro, M J 1985 ‘Post-mortem preservation and alteration of invivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction’, Nature 317: 806–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/317806a0.
Duday, H 2006 ‘L’archéothanatologie ou l’archéologie de la mort (Archaeothanatology or the archaeology of death)’, in Gowland, R & Knüsel, C (eds) Social Archaeology of Funerary Remains, 30–56. Oxford: Oxbow.
Dunbar, E, Cook, G T, Naysmith, P, Tripney, B G & Xu, S 2016 ‘AMS 14C dating at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory’, Radiocarbon 58(1): 9–23. https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2015.2.
Edwards, A J H & Low, A 1932 ‘Short Cists in Roxburgh and Sutherland, and Rock Sculpturings in a Cave at Wemyss, Fife. With a Report on the Human Remains contained in the Cists’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 67: 164–70.
Evans, J A, Chenery, C A & Montgomery, J 2012 ‘A summary of strontium and oxygen isotope variation in archaeological human tooth enamel excavated from Britain’, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 27(5): 754–64.
Evans, J A, Montgomery, J, Wildman, G & Boulton, N 2010 ‘Spatial variations in biosphere Sr-87/Sr-86 in Britain’, Journal of the Geological Society 167(1): 1–4. https:// doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492009-090.
Fægri, K, Kaland, P E & Krzywinski, K 1989 Textbook of pollen analysis, 4th edn. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Fowler, C 2013 The Emergent Past: a relational realist archaeology of Early Bronze Age mortuary practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foxon, A D 1991 ‘Bone, antler, tooth and horn technology and utilisation in prehistoric Scotland’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1157. Accessed 19 July 2018.
Fu, Q, Mittnik, A, Johnson, P L, Bos, K, Lari, M, Bollongino, R, Sun, C, Giemsch, L, Schmitz, R, Burger, J & Ronchitelli, A M 2013 ‘A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes’, Current Biology 23(7): 553–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.044.
Gibson, A M 1982 Beaker Domestic Sites. A Study of the Domestic Pottery of the Late Third and Early Second Millennia B.C. in the British Isles. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series, 107.
Gibson, L 2008 Forensic Art Essentials: A Manual for Law Enforcement Artists. London: Academic Press.
Giles, M & Williams, H 2016 ‘Introduction: Mortuary Archaeology in Contemporary Society’, in Williams, H & Giles, M (eds) Archaeologists and the Dead, 1–20. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gourlay, R B 1988 ‘A Bronze Age Beaker from Achavanich, Caithness’, unpublished report, Highland Regional Council.
Haak, W, Lazaridis, I, Patterson, N, Rohland, N, Mallick, S, Llamas, B, Brandt, G, Nordenfelt, S, Harney, E, Stewardson, K & Fu, Q 2015 ‘Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe’, Nature 522(7555): 207. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14317.
Hackett, C J 1981 ‘Microscopical focal destruction (tunnels) in exhumed human bones’, Medical Science Law 21(4): 243–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/002580248102100403.
Hall, A H, Sherlock, E & Sykes, D 2015 ‘Does micro-CT scanning damage DNA in museum specimens?’ Journal of Natural Science Collections 2: 22–8.
Hanson, D B & Buikstra, J E 1987 ‘Histomorphological alteration in buried human bone from the Lower Illinois Valley: Implications for palaeodietary research’, Journal of Archaeological Science 14: 549–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403 (87)90038-0.
Harman, M 1987 ‘Achavanich, Caithness: Human Remains’, unpublished report, Highland Regional Council.
Heald, A & Barber, J 2015 Caithness Archaeology: Aspects of Prehistory. Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing.
Hedges, R E M 2002 ‘Bone diagenesis: an overview of processes’, Archaeometry 44(3): 319–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.00064.
Hedges, R E M, Millard, A R & Pike, A W G 1995 ‘Measurements and relationships of diagenetic alteration of bone from three archaeological sites’, Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 201–9. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1995.0022.
Helmer, R 1984 Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische Bildmischung. Heidelberg: Kriminalistik-Verlag.
Hillson, S W 1979 ‘Diet and dental disease’, World Archaeology 11(2): 147–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1979.9979758.
Hillson, S W, 1986 Teeth. Cambridge: Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology.
Hofmanova, Z, Kreutzer, S, Hellenthal, G, Sell, C, Diekmann, Y et al 2016 ‘Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(25): 6886–91. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523951113.
Hollund, H I, Jans, M M E, Collins, M J, Kars, H, Joosten, I & Kars, S M 2012 ‘What happened here? Bone histology as a tool in decoding the post-mortem histories of archaeological bone from Castricum, The Netherlands’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 22(5): 537–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/oa. 1273.
Hrdlicˇ ka, A 1932 ‘The principal dimensions, absolute and relative, of the humerus in the white race’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 16: 431–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330160414.
Hutchison, M in press ‘The osteological evidence from short-cist graves of eastern Scotland’, in Parker Pearson, M, Chamberlain, A, Jay, M, Richards, M, Evans, J & Sheridan, J A (eds), The Beaker People: Isotopes, mobility and diet in prehistoric Britain. Oxford: Oxbow (Prehistoric Society Research Papers).
Iacumin, P, Nikolaev, V, Genoni, L, Ramigni, M, Ryskov, Y G & Longinelli, A 2004 ‘Stable isotope analyses of mammal skeletal remains of Holocene age from European Russia: A way to trace dietary and environmental changes’, Geobios 37(1): 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2003.05.001.
Immel, A, Le Cabec, A, Bonazzi, M, Herbig, A, Temming, H, Schuenemann, V J, Bos, K I, Langbein, F, Harvati, K, Bridault, A, Pion, G, Julien, M A, Krotova, O, Conard, N J, Muenzel, S C, Drucker, D G, Viola B, Hublin, J J, Tafforeau, P & Krause, J 2016 ‘Effect of X-ray irradiation on ancient DNA in sub-fossil bones – guidelines for safe X-ray imaging’, Scientific Reports 6: 32969. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32969.
Jans, M M E, Nielsen-Marsh, C M, Smith, C I, Collins, M J & Kars, H 2004 ‘Characterisation of microbial attack on archaeological bone’, Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2003.07.007.
Jónsson, H, Ginolhac, A, Schubert, M, Johnson, P L & Orlando, L 2013 ‘mapDamage2.0: fast approximate Bayesian estimates of ancient DNA damage para-meters’, Bioinformatics 29(13): 1682–4. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btt193.
Kennedy, K A R 1989 ‘Skeletal markers of occupational stress’, in İşcan, M Y & Kennedy, K A R (eds) Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, 129–60. New York: Alan R Liss.
Key, F M, Posth, C, Krause, J, Herbig, A & Bos, K I 2017 ‘Mining Metagenomic Data Sets for Ancient DNA: Recommended Protocols for Authentication’, Trends in Genetics 33(8): 508–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2017.05.005.
Kinnes, I A, Gibson, A M, Ambers, J, Bowman, S, Leese, M & Boast, R 1991 ‘Radiocarbon dating and British Beakers: the British Museum programme’, Scottish Archaeological Review 8: 35–68.
Kirk, L & Start, S 1999 ‘Death at the Under-takers’, in Downes, J & Pollard, T (eds) The Loved Body’s Corruption: Archaeological Contributions to the Study of Human Mortality, 200–8. Glasgow: Cruithne Press.
Krogman, W M & İşcan, M Y 1986 The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, 2nd edn. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
Lazaridis, I, Nadel, D, Rollefson, G, Merrett, D C, Rohland, N, Mallick, S, Fernandes, D,
Novak, M, Gamarra, B, Sirak, K & Connell, S 2016 ‘Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East’, Nature 536(7617): 419–24. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19310.
Llamas, B, Valverde, G, Fehren-Schmitz, L, Weyrich, L S, Cooper, A & Haak, W 2017 ‘From the field to the laboratory: Controlling DNA contamination in human ancient DNA research in the high-throughput sequencing era’, STAR: Science & Technology of Archaeological Research 3(1): 1–14.
McConnell, P 1883 Notebook of Agricultural Figures for Farmers and Farm Students. London.
McKinley, J I 2004 ‘Compiling a skeletal inventory: disarticulated and co-mingled remains’, in Brickley, M & McKinley, J I (eds) ‘Guidelines to the standards for recording of human remains’, Institute of Field Archaeologists Paper No. 7, 14–17. Southampton and Reading: BABAO and Institute of Field Archaeologists.
McKinley, J I 2011 ‘The human remains’, in Fitzpatrick, A P (ed.) The Amesbury archer and the Boscombe Bowmen, Bell Beakers at Boscombe Down, Amesbury, Wiltshire, 18–32. Wessex Archaeological Reports No. 27. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.
Masters, P M 1987 ‘Preferential preservation of non-collagenous protein during bone diagenesis: implications for chronometric and stable isotope measurements’, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51: 3209–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(87)90129-3.
Matthew, A J, Woods, A J & Oliver, C 1991 ‘Spots before the eyes: new comparison charts for visual percentage estimation in archaeological material’, in Middleton, A & Freestone, I (eds) Recent Developments in Ceramic Petrology, 211–63. London: British Museum (Occasional Paper No. 81).
Mays, S, Brickley, M & Dodwell, N 2004 ‘Human bones from archaeological sites: Guidelines for producing assessment documents and analytical reports’, Centre for Archaeology Guidelines. London: English Heritage/BABAO.
Meyer, M & Kircher, M 2010 ‘Illumina sequencing library preparation for highly multiplexed target capture and sequencing’, Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2010 (6): pdb–prot5448.
Miles, A E W 1962 ‘Assessment of the ages of a population of Anglo-Saxons from their dentitions’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 55: 881–6.
Millard, A 2001 ‘The Deterioration of Bone’, in Brothwell, D & Pollard, A M (eds) Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, 637–47. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Miller, H, Carden, R F, Evans, J, Lamb, A, Madgwick, R, Osborne, D, Symmons, R & Sykes, N 2016 ‘Dead or alive? Investigating long-distance transport of live fallow deer and their body parts in antiquity’, Environmental Archaeology 21(3): 246–59. https://doi.org/10.1179/1749631414Y.0000000043.
Moffat, B 1987 ‘Costing document for Bob Gourlay’, unpublished correspondence, SHARP.
Moffat, B 1988 ‘Preliminary Pollen Analytical Work on the Achavanich Beaker’, unpublished report, SHARP. Highland HER SHG26994.
Mollerup, L, Tjellden, A K E, Hertz, E & Holst,M 2016 ‘The post-mortem exposure interval of an Iron Age human bone assemblage from Alken Enge, Denmark’, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10: 819–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.06.021.
Moore, P D, Webb, J A & Collinson, M E 1991 Pollen Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Mycroarray http://www.arborbiosci.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/myBaits-Manual-v4.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2018.
Nakagawa, T, Brugiapaglia, E, Digerfeldt, G, Reille, M, de Beaulieu, J L & Yasuda, Y 1998 ‘Dense-media separation as a more efficient pollen extraction method for use with organic sediment/deposit samples: comparison with the conventional method’, Boreas 27: 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.1998.tb00864.x.
Navarro-Gomez, D, Leipzig, J, Shen, L, Lott, M, Stassen, A P M, Wallace, D C, Wiggs, J L, Falk, M J, van Oven, M & Gai, X 2015 ‘Phy-Mer: a novel alignment-free and reference-independent mitochondrial haplo-group classifier’, Bioinformatics 31(8): 1310–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu825.
Needham, S 2005 ‘Transforming Beaker Culture in north-west Europe: processes of fusion and fission,’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 171–217. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00001006.
Neil, S, Montgomery, J, Evans, J, Cook, G T & Scarre, C 2017 ‘Land use and mobility during the Neolithic in Wales explored using isotope analysis of tooth enamel,’ American Journal of Physical Anthropology 164(2): 371–93. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23279.
Nielsen-Marsh, C M, Smith, C I, Jans, M M E, Nord, A, Kars, H & Collins, M J 2007 ‘Bone diagenesis in the European Holocene II: Taphonomic and environmental considerations’, Journal of Archaeological Science 34(9): 1523–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.11.012.
Olalde, I, Brace, S, Allentoft, M E, Armit, I, Kristiansen, K, Booth, T, Rohland, N, Mallick, S, Szécsényi-Nagy, A, Mittnik, A, Altena, E, Lipson, M, Lazaridis, I, Harper, T K, Patterson, N, Broomandkhoshbacht, N, Diekmann, Y, Faltyskova, Z, Fernandes, D, Ferry, M, Harney, E, de Knijff, P, Michel, M, Oppenheimer, J, Stewardson, K, Barclay, A, Alt, K W, Liesau, C, Ríos, P, Blasco, C, Miguel, J V, Garcia, R M, Avilés Fernández, A, Banffy, E, Bernabò-Brea, M, Billoin, D, Bonsall, C, Bonsall, L, Allen, T, Büster, L, Carver, S, Castells Navarro, L, Craig, O E, Cook, G, Cunliffe, B, Denaire, A, Egging Dinwiddy, K, Dodwell, N, Ernée, M, Evans, C, Kucha rˇ í k, M, Farré, J F, Fowler, C, Gazenbeek, M, Garrido Pena, R, Haber-Uriarte, M, Haduch, E, Hey, G, Jowett, N, Knowles, T, Massy, K, Pfrengle, S, Lefranc, P, Lemercier, O, Lefebvre, A, Martínez, C H, Galeria Olmo, V, Ramírez, A B, Maurandi, J L, Majó, T, McKinley, J I, McSweeney, K, Mende, B G, Modi, A, Kulcsár, G, Kiss, V, Czene, A, Patay, R, Endro˝ di, A, Köhler, K, Hajdu, T, Szeniczey, T, Dani, J, Bernert, Z, Hoole, M, Cheronet, O, Keating, D, Velemínský, P, Dobeš, M, Candilio, F, Brown, F, Fernández, R F, Herrero-Corral, A M, Tusa, S, Carnieri, E, Lentini, L, Valenti, A, Zanini, A, Waddington, C, Delibes, G, Guerra-Doce, E, Neil, B, Brittain, M, Luke, M, Mortimer, R, Desideri, J, Besse, M, Brücken, G, Furmanek, M, Hałuszko, A, Mackiewicz Rapin´ ski, A, Leach, S, Soriano, I, Lillios, K T, Cardoso, J, Parker Pearson, M, Włodarczak, P, Price, T D, Prieto, P, Rey, P-J, Risch, R, Rojo Guerra, M A, Schmitt, A, Serralongue, J, Silva, A M, Smrcka, V, Vergnaud, L, Zilhão, J, Caramelli, D, Higham, T, Thomas, M G, Kennett, D J, Fokkens, H, Heyd, V, Sheridan, J A, Sjögren, K-G, Stockhammer, P W, Krause, J, Pinhasi, R, Haak, W, Barnes, I, Lalueza-Fox, C & Reich, D 2018 ‘The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe’, Nature 555: 190–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25738.
Pinhasi, R, Fernandes, D, Sirak, K, Novak, M, Connell, S, Alpaslan-Roodenberg, S, Gerritsen, F, Moiseyev, V, Gromov, A, Raczky, P & Anders, A 2015 ‘Optimal ancient DNA yields from the inner ear part of the human petrous bone’, PloS one 10(6): e0129102. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129102.
Reimer, P J, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, J W, Blackwell, P G, Bronk Ramsey, C, Grootes, P M, Guilderson, T P, Haflidason, H, Hajdas, I, Hatte, C, Heaton, T J, Hoffmann, D L, Hogg, A G, Hughen, K A, Kaiser, K F, Kromer, B, Manning, S W, Niu, M, Reimer, R W, Richards, D A, Scott, E M, Southon, J R, Staff, R A, Turney, C S M & van der Plicht, J 2013 ‘IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP’, Radiocarbon 55(4): 1869–87. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947.
Richards, M P, Fuller, B T & Molleson, T I 2006 ‘Stable isotope palaeodietary study of humans and fauna from the multi-period (Iron Age, Viking and Late Medieval) site of Newark Bay, Orkney’, Journal of Archaeological Science 33(1): 122–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2005.07.003.
Roberts, C A & Manchester, K 1997 The Archaeology of Disease, 2nd edn. Stroud: The History Press.
Rohland, N, Harney, E, Mallick, S, Noredenfelt, S & Reich, D 2015 ‘Partial uracil-DNA-glycosylase treatment for screening of ancient DNA’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370: 20130624. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb. 2013.0624.
Saunders, S R 1989 ‘Non-metric variation’, in İşcan, M Y & Kennedy, K A R (eds) Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, 95–108. New York: Alan R Liss.
Scheuer, L & Black, S 2000a ‘Development and ageing of the juvenile skeleton’, in Cox, M & Mays, S (eds) Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science, 9–22. London: Greenwich Medical Media.
Scheuer, L & Black, S 2000b Developmental Juvenile Osteology. San Diego: Academic Press.
Scorrano, G, Mazzuca, C, Valentini, F, Scano, G, Buccolieri, A, Giancane, G, Manno, D, Valli, L, Mallegni, F & Serra, A 2016 ‘The tale of Henry VII: a multidisciplinary approach to determining post-mortem practice’, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-016-0321-4.
Scott, E M, Bryant, C, Cook, G T & Naysmith, P 2003 ‘Is there a fifth international radiocarbon intercomparison (VIRI)?’, Radiocarbon 45: 493–5.
Scott, E M, Cook, G T, Naysmith, P, Bryant, C & O’Donnell, D 2007 ‘A report on phase 1 of the 5th international radiocarbon intercomparison (VIRI)’, Radiocarbon 49: 409–26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200032835.
Scott, E M, Cook, G T & Naysmith, P 2010 ‘A report on phase 2 of the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI)’, Radiocarbon 52 (3): 846–58. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200045938.
Scott, J G 1992 ‘Mortuary structures and megaliths’, in Sharples, N & Sheridan, J A (eds) Vessels for the Ancestors, 104–19. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Shepherd, A N 2012 ‘Stepping Out Together: men, women, and their Beakers in time and space’, in Allen, M J, Gardiner, J & Sheridan, J A (eds) Is there a British Chalcolithic? People, Place and Polity in the Later Third Millennium, 257–80. Oxford: Oxbow (Prehistoric Society Research Paper 4).
Shepherd, I A G 1986 Powerful Pots: Beakers in north-east prehistory. Aberdeen: Anthropological Museum, University of Aberdeen.
Sheridan, J A 1992 ‘Kintyre Nurseries (Limecraigs hospital site), Campbeltown (Campbeltown parish): Early Bronze Age short cist’, Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 1992: 58–9.
Sheridan, J A 2005 ‘The National Museums of Scotland radiocarbon dating programmes: results obtained during 2004/5’, Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 6: 182–3.
Sheridan, J A 2007 ‘Scottish Beaker dates: the good, the bad and the ugly’, in Larsson, M & Parker Pearson, M (eds), From Stonehenge to the Baltic: Living with Cultural Diversity in the Third Millennium bc, 91–123. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, International Series, 1692.
Sheridan, J A 2010 ‘The Pottery from Battle Moss’, unpublished report produced for Kenny Brophy’s Battle Moss Project.
Skoglund, P, Storå, J, Götherström, A & Jakobsson, M 2013 ‘Accurate sex identification of ancient human remains using DNA shotgun sequencing’, Journal of Archaeological Science 40(12): 4477–82.
Stace, C 2010 New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stuiver, M & Kra, R S 1986 ‘Editorial comment’, Radiocarbon 28(2B): ii. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003382220006015X.
Stuiver, M & Polach, H A 1977 ‘Reporting of 14C data’, Radiocarbon 19(3): 355–63. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200003672.
Stuiver, M & Reimer, P J 1986 ‘A computer program for radiocarbon age calibration’, Radiocarbon 28(2B): 1022–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200060276.
Stuiver, M & Reimer, P J 1993 ‘Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35(1): 215–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200013904.
Sutherland, N 2016 ‘Achavanich “Ava”’, unpublished report produced for the Achavanich Beaker Burial Project.
Taylor, K T 2001 Forensic Art and Illustration. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Tipping, R 1994 ‘“Ritual” floral tributes in the Scottish Bronze Age: palynological evidence’, Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 133–9. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1994.1014.
Tipping, R, Ashmore, P, Davies, A L, Haggart, B A, Moir, A, Newton, A, Sands, R, Skinner, T & Tisdall, E 2008 ‘Prehistoric Pinus woodland dynamics in an upland landscape in northern Scotland: the roles of climate change and human impact’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 251–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-007-0120-z.
Trinkhaus, E 1978 ‘Bilateral asymmetry of human skeletal non-metric traits’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 49: 315–18.
Trotter, M 1970 ‘Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones’, in Stewart, E D (ed.) Personal Identification in Mass Disasters, 71–83. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution (National Museum of Natural History).
Turner-Walker, G & Jans, M M E 2008 ‘Reconstructing taphonomic histories using histological analysis’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266: 227–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2008. 03.024.
Turner-Walker, G, Nielsen-Marsh, C M, Syversen, U, Kars, H & Collins, M J 2002 ‘Sub-micron spongiform porosity is the major ultra-structural alteration occurring in archaeological bone’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12: 407–14.
Turner-Walker, G & Peacock, E E 2008 ‘Preliminary results of bone diagenesis in Scandanavian bogs’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266: 151–9.
Tuross, N, Fogel, M L & Hare, P E 1988 ‘Variability in the preservation of the isotopic composition of collagen from fossil bone’, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52: 929–35.
Tyrell, A, 2000 ‘Skeletal non-metric traits and the assessment of inter- and intra-population diversity: past problems and future potential’, in Cox, M & Mays, S (eds) Human osteology in archaeology and forensic science, 289–306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
van Geel, B 1976 ‘A palaeoecological study of Holocene peat bog sections, based on the analysis of pollen, spores, and macro- and microscopic remains of fungi, algae, cormophytes and animals’, PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam.
van Geel, B & Aptroot, A 2006 ‘Fossil ascomycetes in Quaternary deposits’, Nova Hedwigia 82: 313–29. https://doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2006/0082-0313.
van Geel, B, Buurman, J, Brinkkemper, O, Schelvis, J, Aptroot, A, van Reenen, G & Hakbijl, T 2003 ‘Environmental reconstruction of a Roman Period settlement site in Uitgeest (The Netherlands), with special reference to coprophilous fungi’, Journal of Archaeological Science 30(7): 873–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4403(02)00265-0.
van Geel, B, Coope, G R & van der Hammen, T 1989 ‘Palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the Late-glacial type section at Usselo (The Netherlands)’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60: 125–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(89)90072-9.
Waldron, T 2007 St Peter’s, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire. Volume 2: The human remains. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Wang, C, Zhan, X, Liang, L, Abecasis, G R & Lin, X 2015 ‘Improved ancestry estimation for both genotyping and sequencing data using projection procrustes analysis and genotype imputation’, The American Journal of Human Genetics 96(6): 926–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.04.018.
Walsh, S, Chaitanya, L, Clarisse, L, Wirken, L, Draus-Barini, J, Kovatsi, L, Maeda, H, Ishikawa, T, Sijen, T, de Knijff, P, Branicki, W, Liu, F & Kayser, M 2014 ‘Developmental validation of the HIrisPlex system: DNA-based eye and hair colour prediction for forensic and anthropological usage’, Forensic Science International: Genetics 9: 150–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2013.12.006.
Ward, G K & Wilson, S R 1978 ‘Procedures for comparing and combining radiocarbon age-determinations: a critique’, Archaeometry 20(1): 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.1978.tb00208.x.
Waterston, D 1927 ‘A stone cist and its contents found at Piekie Farm, near Boarshills, Fife’, Proc Soc Antiq Soc 61: 30–44.
Wells, C 1964 Bones, Bodies and Disease. Evidence of disease and abnormality in early man. New York: Praeger.
White, L & Booth, T J 2014 ‘The origin of bacteria responsible for bioerosion to the internal bone microstructure: Results from experimentally-deposited pig carcasses’, Forensic Science International 239: 92–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.03.024.
Wilkin, N 2011 ‘Animal remains from Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age funerary contexts in Wiltshire, Dorset and Oxfordshire’, The Archaeological Journal 168: 64–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/00665983.2011.11020829.
Wilkin, N 2016 ‘Pursuing the penumbral: the deposition of Beaker pottery at Neolithic monuments in Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age Scotland’, in Brophy, K G, MacGregor, G & Ralston, I B M (eds) The Neolithic of Mainland Scotland, 261–318. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Wilkin, N, Curtis, N, Hutchison, M, & Wright, M 2009 ’Further radiocarbon dating results from the Beakers and Bodies Project’, Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 10: 216–18.
Wilkinson, C 2004 Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
How to Cite
Hoole, M., Sheridan, A., Boyle, A., Booth, T., Brace, S., Diekmann, Y., Olalde, I., Thomas, M., Barnes, I., Evans, J., Chenery, C., Sloane, H., Morrison, H., Fraser, S., Timpany, S., & Hamilton, D. (2018). ‘Ava’: a Beaker-associated woman from a cist at Achavanich, Highland, and the story of her (re-)discovery and subsequent study. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 147, 73-118. https://doi.org/10.9750/PSAS.147.1250